Types of indirect agglutination

Types of indirect agglutination

The soluble antigen (or antibody) is first adsorbed on the surface of a granular carrier of appropriate size, and then interacts with the corresponding antibody (or antigen). In the presence of a suitable electrolyte, specific agglutination occurs, called indirect agglutination (indirectagglutination) ) Or passive agglutination (passiveagglutination). This reaction is suitable for the detection of various antibodies and soluble antigens, and its sensitivity is higher than the precipitation reaction, so it is widely used in clinical testing.

According to the way the sensitized carrier uses antigen or antibody and agglutination reaction, indirect agglutination reaction can be divided into

(1) Positive indirect agglutination reaction

Antigen-sensitized carrier to detect the corresponding antibody in the specimen.

(2) Reverse indirect agglutination reaction

Sensitize the carrier with a specific antibody to detect the corresponding antigen in the specimen

(3) Indirect agglutination inhibition reaction

The diagnostic reagent is an antigen-sensitized particle carrier and corresponding antibodies, which are used to detect whether the same antigen as the sensitized antigen exists in the specimen. The detection method is that the specimen reacts with the antibody reagent first, and then the sensitized carrier is added. If agglutination occurs, it means that the same antigen does not exist in the specimen, and the antibody reagent is not bound, so it still acts with the antigen on the carrier. If the same antigen is present in the specimen, the agglutination reaction is inhibited. Similarly, antibody-sensitized carriers and corresponding antigens can be used as diagnostic reagents to detect antibodies in specimens. This is called reverse indirect agglutination inhibition reaction.

(4) Cooperative agglutination reaction

Co-agglutination is similar to the principle of indirect agglutination, but the carrier used is neither natural red blood cells nor synthetic polymer particles, but a Staphylococcus protienA (SPA) . SPA has the property of binding to the Fc segment of IgG, so when this staphylococcus is connected to an IgG antibody, it becomes an antibody-sensitized particle carrier. In contact with the corresponding antigen, reverse indirect agglutination occurs. Cooperative agglutination reaction is also suitable for direct detection of bacteria.

In the indirect agglutination reaction, there are many types of particles that can be used as carriers. Commonly used are animal or human red blood cells, bacteria, and a variety of inert particles such as polystyrenelatex, bentonite, gelatin particles, activated carbon, fire Cotton glue, etc. The most commonly used in clinical tests are the indirect hemagglutination test and the latex agglutination test.

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